Donation to Transfusion, Complete Information

ABSTRACT

By definition, blood transfusion is a process in which the whole blood or parts of the blood are put into a patient’s bloodstream through a vein. Giving your blood for someone who is in need is considered one of the Nobel things that a person can do. People are encouraged to donate blood at regular intervals. FYI blood donation and bold transfusion are 2 different things.

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There is a subtle difference between blood donation and transfusion. Each has a slightly different meaning attached to it.
By definition, blood donation refers to the process of collecting, testing, preparing, and storing blood and blood components.
On the other hand,blood transfusion refers to an injection of a volume of blood, taken previously from a healthy person, into a patient.
Here in this article, we are going to talk about the different types of blood groups and their compatibility with transfusion with other blood groups.

Fun Fact: During the discovery of blood group, the sample that contained one type of antigen was named group A, whereas the sample that contained the other antigen was named group B, if a sample of blood contained both the antigens it was named group AB and the blood sample that contained zero antigen was named group O (The word ‘O’ looks like the number 0, that’s why it was named as such).


DONATION, TRANSFUSION

  1. A+ can donate to A+ & AB+
  2. B+ can donate to B+ & AB+
  3. AB+ can donate to AB+ (Worst BG for donation)
  4. A- can donate to A+, A-, AB+ & AB-
  5. B- can donate to B+, B-, AB+ & AB-
  6. AB- can donate to AB+ & AB- (Least common BG)
  7. O+ can donate to A+, B+, AB+ & O+ (Most common BG)
  8. O- can donate to everyone (Best BG for donation)
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Desciption of Different Blood Types

(Note: The best way to remember the above scenario is to observe the pattern, positive BG can donate to their positive counterparts whereas negative BG can donate to both their negative and positive counterparts.
Exception: O+ can donate to each BG containing + sign and O- can donate to anyone.)

In truth, these are 8 blood types that are the oversimplified version of how the blood types actually work. As a matter of fact, each one can be further subdivided into numerous subdivisions resulting in different blood types with their own properties.

To know more about the blood type distribution by country,click the link: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Blood_type_distribution_by_country


Rh-null “THE GOLDEN BLOOD”

Rh-null is considered the rare of the rarest blood sometimes considered as “the golden blood”. People with this blood type have a complete absence of ‘Rh’ antigens in their blood. There are 61 potential protein in the Rh system. Rh null blood lacks all 61 antigens which give the name ‘null’. As a result of this, it is called universal donors at least with respect to Rh antigens because containing no antigens makes the blood non-rejectable.

It is so rare that only 43 people on the planet have been reported to have it in the 50 years after its discovery, it was first discovered to be present in an Australian woman in 1961. As a matter of fact, people with this BG are at incredibly high risk all the time as it is extremely difficult to obtain for a blood transfusion but on the other hand, it is a blessing as this blood can be accepted by any group because it lacks all 61 antigens which makes it easy for any blood group to accept it hence the term golden blood’.

Surprisingly it is hereditary and runs in the family, only 14 families are reported to have it consisting of 43 people.


ABO TYPING (BG TESTING)

ABO typing is a two-step process that includes testing the blood for A, B, or O type in the first step and testing it for being negative or positive in the second step. These two steps can accurately detect your blood type.

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ABO Typing Testing

For the 1st step, a fresh blood sample is taken and two drops are put on a glass slide at a distance. Then Anti-A is mixed with the first drop and Anti-B is mixed with the second drop. They are left to react properly and after some time the type of reaction that they show tells us the basic blood group. For reaction, if the first drop reacts then it is A-type, if the second drop reacts then it is B-type, if both the drops react then it is AB-type, and lastly if none of the droplets react then it is O-type.

For the 2nd step, the same sample is taken and a drop is put on a new glass slide. This time Anti-D is mixed in the drop. If the sample shows a reaction then it is a positive type and if no reaction then it is a negative type. This step is called back typing.


MYTHBUSTERS

1. Do animals have blood types?

Yes, they do. They have species-specific BG. These groups are determined by the structure of the blood based on the presence or absence of antibodies along with the make-up of proteins that sit on the outside of RBC(s).
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2. Are there links between blood types and certain diseases?

No, not all. Every BG is independent of the diseases that it may cause in the first place. It is dependent upon external factors such as the immediate surrounding environment, hereditary, etc.
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3. Can I donate if I have a tattoo?

If you have a tattoo, you can only donate if you meet certain requirements. This goes for piercing too. You can only donate after 1 year of your tattoo. Introducing ink, metal or any other foreign material can expose to the immune system to harmful conditions.
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4. I can donate only once a year.

Your blood replenishes itself, but not all at once. Plasma is restored within 24 hours, for RBC it is four to six weeks. That is why you must wait at least 56 days to donate.


THE SPECIALITY OF BLOOD (BLOODY GOOD FEATURES)

  • This is a simple but brilliant technique used by doctors before surgery. If you have a surgery that is scheduled in the future and which requires blood to operate then your blood is taken out as a donation way before the surgery and used later in the surgery which eliminates the need for blood from a different person altogether.
    This eliminates any risk that comes with blood transfusion.
  • While our immune system is brilliant at many things but in some areas, it is not bright as if a person with type A receives a blood of type B blood, the immune system won’t recognize it and will assume it as an invader and will try to attack resulting in people growing ill or dying during the process of wrong transfusion.
  • The color of your blood may vary to an extent, it will still be red but the shades may vary. The oxygen-rich blood has a bright red color but a deoxygenated blood has a darker red color.
    So next time when you get a cut and start bleeding don’t judge the health of your body by the color of your blood whether it is darker or brighter. It purely depends upon the content of oxygen it has in it.
    FYI not all blood present in the animal kingdom is red, octopuses have blue blood because of the presence of copper in their blood and skink, a type of lizard has green blood because they don’t excrete biliverdin which adds to the green color.
  • If we go in detail and start listing all components of blood, we will end up with a list that will contain millions of different blood types. But as a matter of fact, we know this is not the case as we only have 8 main blood groups because only a few components determine our blood type and they are the same for 99% of the population. Only a select few have their smaller components determining their blood types such as Rh-null which doesn’t have any Rh component in the blood.
    Rh alone has 61 different components.

Here’s a site that will help you locate your nearest blood donation centre: http://www.aabb.org/tm/donation/Pages/Blood-Bank-Locator.aspx

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